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الأربعاء، 3 أبريل، 2013

QUR'ANIC VERSES WITH IMPORTANT GEOLOGICAL CONNOTATIONS

الأربعاء, أبريل 03, 2013

QUR'ANIC VERSES WITH IMPORTANT GEOLOGICAL CONNOTATIONS
By: Dr. / Zaghloul El-Naggar

As mentioned above, the Glorious Qur’an is basically a book of guidance, revealed by The Creator (all glory be to Him) to man in areas that cannot be answered by the human intellect such as the essence of faith, the acts of worship, the moral code and the rules and regulations that govern the various transactions between human beings. Besides this guidance, the Glorious Qur’an refers to the cosmos (the earth and the heavens, as well as to many of their components, inhabitants and phenomena) in numerous verses, that exceed 1000 in number. Such references come in the context of testifying for the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of The Creator Who has brought this universe into being, and is capable of this annihilation and of its recreation. Consequently, the Qur’anic cosmic verses are not meant to be pieces of scientific information per se, as scientific knowledge has been left for man to gain (through observation and conclusion or experimentation, observation and conclusion) over a long span of time. This is simply due to the limitations of the human senses and the cumulative nature of the scientific knowledge. Yet, the illustrious Qur’an, being the word of The Creator, and hence, the absolute truth, Qur’anic verses with cosmic reflections must convey a number of absolute facts about the universe. Of these verses, a large number speaks of the earth, which is mentioned 461 times throughout the Glorious Qur’an to describe the whole planet, its outer rocky layer or the soil section that covers its rocky surface. Verses of geological interest amongst these amount to more than 110, and can be grouped into 11 categories as follows:


1- One verse that instructs man to travel through the earth, make his own observations and use such surveillances to reflect on how creation was originated
"Say: "Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated creation, and then Allah will bring forth (resurrect) the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death). Verily, Allah is Able to do all things."
 (Surat Al-'Ankabut (The Spider): 20).
2- 

A group of verses that refer to the shape of the earth
" And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big).He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."
(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder): 3);
 "And the earth We have spread out, and have placed therein firm mountains, and caused to grow therein all kinds of things in due proportion."
 (Surat Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract): 19);
"{Musa (Moses)} said: "Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!"
(Surat Ash-Shu'ara (The Poets):28);

"He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running (on a fixed course) for an appointed term. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving."
(Surat (Az-Zumar (The Groups): 5) ;

"And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely growth (plants)."
(Surat Qaf: 7);

"(He is) the Lord of the two easts (places of sunrise during early summer and early winter) and the Lord of the two wests (places of sunset during early summer and early winter)."
 (Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):17);

"It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge."
(Surat At-Talaq (The Divorce):12);

"Who has created the seven heavens one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then look again: "Can you see any rifts?"
(Surat Al-Mulk (Dominion):3);

"So I swear by the Lord of all the (three hundred and sixty (360)) points of sunrise and sunset in the east and the west that surely We are Able, To replace them by (others) better than them; and We are not to be outrun."
(Surat Al-Ma'arij (The Ways of Ascent):40-41);   

Its motions "And He it is Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating."
 (Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):33);

"It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit."
(Surat Ya-Sin: 40);

"And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The Work of Allah, Who perfected all things, verily! He is Well-Acquainted with what you do."
(Surat An-Naml (The Ants): 88);

"And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big).He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."
(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder): 3);
"And by the sun and its brightness; By the moon as it follows it (the sun); By the day as it shows up (the sun's) brightness; By the night as it conceals it (the sun);"
(Surat Ash-Shams (The Sun):1-4); 
"By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness;" (Surat Al-Lail (The Night): 1-2);

"He it is Who has appointed for you the night that you may rest therein, and the day to make things visible (to you). Verily, in this are Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for a people who listen (i.e. those who think deeply)."
 (Surat Yunus (Jonah):67);

"And have made the night as a covering (through its darkness), And have made the day for livelihood."
(Surat An-Naba' (The Great News): 10-11);

"If you were to ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?" They will surely reply: "Allah." How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)?"
 (Surat Al-Ankabut (The Spider):61);

"See you not (O Muhammad (pbuh)) that Allah merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night are added in the hours of the day), and merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of day are added in the hours of night), and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is All-Aware of what you do."
(Surat Luqman: 29);

"He merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added to the hours of the day), and He merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of day is added to the hours of night). And He has subjected the sun and the moon: each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir (the thin membrane over the date-stone)."
(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):13);

"He merges night into day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added into the hours of the day), and merges day into night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day is added into the hours of the night), and He has full knowledge of whatsoever is in the breasts."
(Surat Al-Hadid (Iron): 6);

"And a sign for them is the night. We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness."
(Surat Ya-Sin: 37);

 "Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayat (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding."
(Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow):164);

"Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding."
 (Surat Al-'Imran (The Family of Imran):190);

"Verily, in the alternation of the night and the day and in all that Allah has created in the heavens and the earth are Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for those people who keep their duty to Allah, and fear Him much."
(Surat Yunus (Jonah): 6);

"And it is He Who gives life and causes death, and His is the alternation of night and day. Will you not then understand?"
(Surat Al-Mu'minun (The Believers):80);

"And in the alternation of night and day, and the provision (rain) that Allah sends down from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the turning about of the winds (i.e. sometimes towards the east or north, and sometimes towards the south or west sometimes bringing glad tidings of rain etc., and sometimes bringing the torment), are signs for a people who understand."
(Surat Al-Jathiyah (The Kneeling):5);


And its origin "Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?"
(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):30);

Where both the earth and the heavens are clearly described to have constituted (in their distant past) a single entity (the initial singularity~ primordial body) before they split apart (or the so-called Big Bang). Such group also includes verses that emphasize the vastly distant positions of stars

"So I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily that is indeed a great oath, if you but know. "
(Surat Al-Waqi'ah (The Event):75-76);

 The expanding nature of the universe

"With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof." (SuratAdh-Dhariyat (The Winds that Scatter):47) ~ The smoky nature of the early sky (universe)"Then He rose over (Istawa) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly. Then He completed and finished from their creation (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower."
(Surat Fussilat (They are explained in detail):11-12),

 The existence of the interstellar matter

"Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary). Say (O Muhammad (pbuh)): "Who then has the least power against Allah, if He were to destroy the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), his mother, and all those who are on the earth together?" And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them. He creates what He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things. And (both) the Jews and the Christians say: "We are the children of Allah and His loved ones." Say: "Why then does He punish you for your sins?" Nay, you are but human beings of those He has created, He forgives whom He wills and He punishes whom He wills. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them; and to Him is the return (of all)."
(Surat Al-Maidah (The Table spread with Food): 17-18);

"If you ask them (about this), they declare: "We were only talking idly and joking." Say: "Was it at Allah (ÚÒ æ Ìá), and His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (pbuh) that you were mocking?"
(Surat At-Taubah (The Repentance): 65);

"And let not their speech grieve you (O Muhammad (pbuh)), for all power and honour belong to Allah. He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower."
 (Surat Yunus (Jonah):65);

"Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). The Most Beneficent (Allah)! Ask Him (O Prophet Muhammad SAW), (concerning His Qualities, His rising over His Throne, His creations, etc.), as He is Al-Khabeer (The All-Knower of everything i.e. Allah)."
(Surat Al-Furqan (The Criterion):59);

"{Musa (Moses)} said: "The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty." (Surat Ash-Su'ara (The Poets):24);

"Do they not think deeply (in their ownselves) about themselves (how Allah created them from nothing, and similarly He will resurrect them)? Allah has created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, except with truth and for an appointed term. And indeed many of mankind deny the Meeting with their Lord."
(Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans) ;

"Allah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Wali (protector or helper) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or receive admonition)?"
(Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration):4);

"So he looked down and saw him in the midst of the Fire."
(Surat As-Saffat (Those Ranged in Ranks): 55);

"Or is it that the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them is theirs? If so, let them ascend up with means (to the heavens)!"
(Surat Sad: 10);

"The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving."
(Surat Sad: 66);

"And Blessed is He to Whom belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned."
 (Surat Az-Zukhrf (The Gold Adornments):85);

"We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth, and for an appointed term. But those who disbelieve turn away from that whereof they are warned."
(Surat Al-Ahqaf (The Curved Sand-hills):3);

"And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us."
(Surat Qaf: 38);

And the concentric nature of both heavens and the earth (the universe) {"See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another,"
(Surat Nuh (Noah):15);

"It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge."
(Surat At-Talaq (The Divorce): 12) ;}


Changes that Occur to Seeds during Germination

As soon as the internal and external requirements are available for germination, the seed absorbs water, swells, and enlarges.  At this point, a complicated series of anabolic and catabolic reactions takes place.  Such reactions help the embryo to grow after a period of complete dormancy within the dry seed.  Thus, it begins to germinate and repeats the life cycle of the mother seed.  This process of germination goes in the following steps:

(1)            The seed absorbs water, and gradually becomes filled with water until it swells.  As a result, the testa (the hard outer coat of the seed) is torn because of the increased pressure from inside the seed.  Accordingly, adequate amounts of water reach the embryo as well as the stored food surrounding it.  This helps to activate the stored food chemically and the embryo biologically.

(2)            The embryo's secretion of enzymes: The embryo begins secreting some enzymes that are capable of crumbling and anabolism of the surrounding food stored in the cotyledons or in the special tissue.  The enzymes carry on the anabolism of the complicated insoluble substances to form simple and soluble substances that the embryo can absorb and use during the early stages of germination.  Examples of such enzymes are the following:
Diastase that converts starch to sugar
- Protease that breaks proteins down into amino acids.
- Lipase that anabolises fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol so that the food store within the seed greatly increases.
(3)             The soil's cracking: One of the most important factors causing the soil to crack is the seeds' swelling as a result of absorption of adequate amounts of water.   When swollen, the seeds generate great power that can hardly be perceived by the human mind.  For instance, if we fill a bottle with dry seeds and add the adequate amount of water and close the bottle tightly, the power resulting from the seeds' germination and the enlargement of their size by the water absorption can shatter the bottle however thick it is.   The soil can also be cracked by the extent of thirst its minerals have for water.  As a result of absorbing great amounts of water, the minerals expand and rise upwards until the soil is softened and then cracks so as to make room for the plumule extending upwards from the germinating seed.   The predominance of argillaceous minerals helps to move the soil particles upwards.  These argillaceous minerals take the form of minute laminated sheets reserving gases inside them, so that if water passes through it replaces these gases and pushes them out of the soil.  As a result, the particles of the soil move upwards and shake violently until the soil is softened and cracks.  Another factor causing the cracking of the soil is the electrical charges found in the argillaceous sheets.  Such electrical charges repel with the similar ones found in the bipolar water molecule, consisting of the positive pole of the hydrogen atom and the negative pole of the oxygen atom.

(4)            The growth of the embryo's cells: The embryo's cells now start to divide and grow until the root stretches downwards and anchors the plant in the soil.  Accordingly, the plant is connected to the natural source that provides it with nutrients.  Such nutrients are either absorbed by the plant in the form of a sap consisting of elements and compounds dissolved in water or directly extracted by the root system from the soil's components. Allah (SWT) gives each plant highly selective abilities in order to select the proper elements and compounds of the soil that are essential for its germination.  After the root system is completed, the plumule goes upwards, penetrating the soil's holes to appear above its surface.  Thus, the germinating seed turns into what is called a seedling, which grows gradually higher to become the stem bearing the leaves and buds that form the shoot system.  By the end of the process of germination, the seedling finally turns into a complete plant.  Blessed be Allah, the Best Creator.

During the germination process, a cotyledon or two may remain under the soil's surface (surrounded by the torn testa) until the embryo consumes the stored nutrients as happens in the process of germinating pea seeds or the stone of palm dates. 

On the other hand, the hypocotyl may grow upwards bringing one or two cotyledons along with the plumule above the soil's surface.  The single cotyledon or both of them would gradually become greener, thus participating in the process of photosynthesis.  This participation would continue for a limited period of time until the plumule lengthens and the green leaves appear on it forming the shoot system.  The shoot system would carry on the process of photosynthesis.  Then the cotyledon would fade away and fall off after consumption of all the nutrients it has.

These complicated processes that take place during the splitting and sprouting of grains and stones can never be done by any creature.  Moreover, they cannot take place without the direction and guidance of Allah.  For this reason, Allah (SWT) attributed these two processes directly to Him to honor them.  In fact, without these processes, life would not have been possible on earth.  Thus, Allah says what can be translated as, "Verily! It is Allâh Who causes the seed-grain and the fruit-stone (like date-stone) to split and sprout" (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle): 95).

All praises be to Allah for His various blessings, among which is the splitting and sprouting of seed-grains and fruit-stones and foremost of which is the Ever-Glorious Qur’an, which Allah (SWT) revealed to His final Messenger and Prophet, Muhammad (SAWS).  Furthermore, Allah (SWT) declared that he would forever preserve the Ever-Glorious Qur'an from any corruption that may occur to its language of revelation, its words or even its letters; consequently the Ever-Glorious Qur’an has maintained the divine glory shining in its ayahs as well as the scientific precision presented in its content.  This scientific precision serves as a witness to the truth of its revelation and the truth of Muhammad's prophethood. 

To conclude, we cannot but invoke Allah to send His Peace and Blessings upon our final Prophet Muhammad, his household, companions and followers until the Day of Judgment.  All praises be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

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