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الاثنين، 6 مايو، 2013

Allah is the Creator of all things

الاثنين, مايو 06, 2013

Allah is the Creator of all things

“Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakil (Trustee, Disposer of all affairs, Guardian) over all things.”
(Surat Az-Zumar (The Groups): 62)

By: Dr. / Zaghloul El-Naggar
This holy ayah comes at the beginning of the last fifth of Surat Az-Zumar, which is a Makkan Surah composed of 75 ayahs after the “Basmallah”. The Surah is called Az-Zumar (The Groups) because it refers to the groups of disbelievers and polytheists entering into Hell, and the groups of devout believers entering into Paradise on the Day of Judgment.
The main theme of the Surah is creed. Nevertheless, in some of the ayahs it also refers to the nature of humans, the destiny of the believers and (the) disbelievers in the hereafter, and what has befallen the disbelievers of previous nations. The Surah gives many parables and signs of creation that proves the Omnipotence of the Divine Aability in creating the universe and resurrecting the dead.

Signs of creation in Surat Az-Zummar:

1.     *“He created the heavens and the earth with truth. He makes the night to go in the day, and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running (on a fixed course) for an appointed term. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving.”* (ayah 5).

2.     *“He created you (all) from a single person (Adam); then made from him his wife (Hawwa (Eve)). And He has sent for you of cattle eight pairs (of the sheep, two male and female; of the goats, two, male and female; of the oxen, two, male and female; and of the camels, two, male and female). He creates you in the wombs of your mothers; creation after creation in three veils of darkness. Such is Allah, your Lord. His is the Kingdom. La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). How then are you turned away?”* (ayah 6).

3.     *“See you not that Allah sends down water(rain) from the sky, and causes it to penetrate the earth,(and then makes it to spring up)as water-springs, and afterward thereby produces crops of different colors, and afterward they wither and you see them turn yellow; then He makes them dry and broken pieces. Verily, in this is a Reminder for men of understanding.”* (ayah 21).

4.     *“Verily you (O Muhammad) will die, and verily they (too) will die.”* (ayah 30).

5.     *“It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep. He keeps those (souls) for which He has ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed. Verily, in this are signs for a people who think deeply.”* þ(ayah 42).

6.     *“Say (O Muhammad): "O Allah! Creator of the heavens and the earth! All-Knower of the Ghaib (unseen) and the seen! You will judge between Your slaves about that wherein they used to differ.”* (ayah 46).

7.     *“Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakil (trustee, Disposer of all affairs, Guardian) over all things.” *( ayah 62)

8.     *“They made not a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him. And On the Day of Resurrection the whole of the earth will be grasped by His Hand and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right hand. Glorified be He, and High be He above all that they associate as partners with Him.”* (ayah 67).   

9.     *“And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord (Allah, when He will come to judge among men): and the Book will be placed (open); and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward; and it will be judged between them with truth; and they will not be wronged.”* (ayah 69).
Each ayah of the previously mentioned ayahs requires its own special analysis to explain the scientific wonders in it. Surely, it would not be proper to analyze all nine ayahs in one article. So, I will confine this article to discussing the seventh ayah only. Before I begin, I find it necessary to introduce some scholars' interpretations of this ayah.

Interpretations of this ayah by some scholars:

*“Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakil (trustee, Disposer of all affairs, Guardian) over all things.” *( ayah 62)
The author of Fi Zilal Al-Qur’an” says: This last section of the Surah presents the truth of monotheism concerning the Oneness of the Creator and the Owner of all things. It puts an end to the disbelievers' offer, which was to worship the God of the Prophet (peace be upon him) if he would worship their gods in return. This was a strange offer since Allah is the Creator of all things, the Owner of the heavens and earth, the One who has no partners. How could He be worshipped along with someone else while everything on earth and in heavens belongs to Him Alone?

Scientific implications in this ayah:

The holy ayah states that everything that exists in both the visible and the hidden worlds is a creation of Allah. He has created all things with His knowledge, wisdom, and power, and protects this creation with His mercy. If the universe was left to its own care for even a twinkle of an eye, it would collapse and perish.  Among the creatures of the hidden world the Qur'an mentions the angels and the jinn. The creatures of the visible world are human beings, animals, plants (all animate creatures), the different types of matter and energy (inanimate), and the different regions and places that are dimensions of the material world.
The process of creation itself with its three stages—the creation of the universe, living things, and then man—was a hidden operation that was not witnessed by man. Consequently, Allah the Almighty says in the Qur'an *"I (Allah) made them (Iblis and his offspring) not to witness (nor took their help in) the creation of the heavens and the earth and not (even) their own creation; nor was I (Allah) to take the misleaders as helpers."* (Surat Al-Kahf (The Cave): 51).
In addition, Allah also says *"Say: "Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated the creation; and then Allah will bring forth the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death).Verily, Allah is Able to do all things."*,(Surat Al-Ankaboot (The Spider):  20).
Putting these two holy ayahs together makes it clear that although man did not witness the process of creation since it preceded his existence, Allah the Almighty has left for him in the earth's rocks and sky many perceptible clues to help the believer reach a correct idea about the process of creation. 
As for the disbeliever, he sees the perceptible clues, touches it with his hands but in his attempt to assign the creation to someone other than Allah, he is lead astray by a flood of hypotheses and theories that lead him anywhere but to the truth.  That’s why Allah confirms what can be translated as, *“Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakil (trustee, Disposer of all affairs, Guardian) over all things.”* (Surat Az-Zumar (The Groups): 62). Moreover, many other Qur'anic ayahs emphasize the truth about creation so that the believers would not be deluded by the puzzles set up by the disbelievers and polytheists who are lead, and still lead people, astray even in our current scientific age. As a matter of fact, the verb "create" and its many derivations appear in the Qur'an 252 times emphasize that Allah is the Creator of all things.

The disbelievers' quandary concerning the age of theuniverse and the evolution of life on earth

In an attempt to deny the creation and the existence of the Creator, disbelievers from ancient times claimed that the world is eternal. Scientific explorations proving the extreme antiquity of the universe and life on earth were thought by atheists to support such a claim. Moreover, the evolutionary process in creation has been discovered, starting from the creation of primary cells in substances to the creation of animate organisms, plants, and animals until, at the very end, it was all crowned by the creation of man as such an honored creature. Still, disbelievers used such discoveries in supporting their false claims of “random creation” which has no proof.  Allah's creations were created over prolonged intervals. It is only Him Who has the power to say to something, “Be.” and it happens. This is for two obvious reasons:
First: Allah wanted to give those who contemplate nature a chance to figure out His laws that govern this universe so that they would use them in establishing a good life on earth. Moreover, this will help them to recognize part of the Creator's great power, knowledge, and wisdom which will lead them to prostrate to Him in worship and obedience. It will also help them to observe the harmony in building the universe which declares Allah's Oneness, to see the duality of all his creatures, from the one celled organism to the human being, which prove Allah's Perfection and Oneness, having no partners or rivals. He created all things. How dare anyone assign himself to His level? *"Surely, disbelievers are those who said:" Allah is the third of the three (in a Trinity)." But there is no Ilah (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Ilah (God-Allah).And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall on the disbelievers among them."*
 (Surat Al-Ma'ida (The Table spread with Food): 73)
Second: Time is a boundary made by Allah, a boundary that limits Allah’s creatures. It is essentially a creature, and a creature could never limit its creator. No matter how much time progresses it is always within the controlling fingers of Allah, dependant upon His will. Instead of understanding the issue this way, materialistic people rush into denying the process of creation and its Creator by claiming that this universe is eternal and random, contradicting all scientific observations found in the earth and the skies. But the Qur'anic ayah we are dealing with, along with hundreds of other ayahs, prove that Allah is the Creator of all things refute the claims about the random and eternal universe.

 The antiquity of the universe and the refutation of its eternity proves the truth of creation

Scientific observation of the known universe proves that heat energy transfers from bodies of greater temperature to bodies of lower temperature. If the universe were eternal as they claim, hot and cold bodies would have become the same temperature and this universe would have ended long time ago. The existence of the universe until today with the continuation of heat transfer refutes the claim of its eternity and infinity and proves that it is nothing but a creation that has a beginning  (more than 10 billion years ago—scientists estimate approximately 14 billion years) and must have an end one day, that only Allah knows. The current laws governing the universe indicate that this end is inevitable, yet they cannot predict when it will happen. For example, the sun loses 4.6 million tons of energy from its mass every second and the same applies on the rest of the stars. So, our universe is definitely on its way to an end at a moment which only Allah the Almighty specifies. Allah says in His holy book what can be translated as*"They ask thee about the Hour (Day of Resurrection): "when will be its appointed time?" Say: "The knowledge thereof is with my Lord (Alone). None can reveal its time but He. Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth. It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden." They ask you as if you have a good knowledge of it. Say:" the knowledge thereof is with Allah (Alone), but most of mankind know not."* (Surat Al-A`raf (The Heights): 187).

The Big Bang confirms the truth of creation

The expansion of the universe is one of the facts astronomers have reached since the beginning of the twentieth century. The Holy Qur'an preceded them to such a fact in ayah number 47 of Surat Ad-Dhariat (The Winnowers).  The ayah can be translated as, "With power and skill did We construct the Firmament: for it is We who create the expansiveness of space." (Yusif Ali translation). 
Astronomers believe that if we go backwards in time through this expansion, all of the universe's matter, energy, space, and time must combine into a single celestial body that diminishes into nonexistence, yet increases in mass and energy in an unimaginable way. Such a primeval atom exploded and turned into a cloud of dust that created the earth and the heavens. Such a theory was called the Big Bang theory. Evidence used to support this theory is the expansion of the universe, the constant temperature (about 3°K) on all the edges of known universe, and the recording of the remains of the earlier cosmic dust at the perceptible edges of the universe.
Although some astronomers and astrophysicists deny the theory of the Big Bang, we as Muslims believe it to be the truth as Allah the Almighty mentioned it in His book 1400 years ago saying *"Have not those who believe known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?"*
(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets): 30).
Creating the universe through a Big Bang is one of the greatest proofs of creation and organization. It is well known that explosions scatter matter, leaving behind great damage. However, the Big Bang created a very orderly system, with exact masses, sizes, dimensions, orbits, velocities, and relationships. In spite of the enormous bodies, dimensions, units, groups, and the complicated relationships within it, such a system is founded in a unified manner; from its smallest to its biggest unit. An explosion whose result was as followed, could never have been made without a precise and accurate organization and power only the Creator is capable of. 

The existence of the matter and the antimatter proves the truth of Creation and organization

Since the first quarter of the twentieth century, all the discoveries and mathematical calculations related to the universe prove the duality of creation fact. Light photons, for instance, sometimes takes the form of waves, and other times particles. Such duality of creation is also found in matter; one part of matter is not only a geometrical point, but it is also an entity that exists in the form of waves.

This observation led to the discovery of the positron, that if those opposites meet, one of them destroys the other, changing its existence into nonexistence. This means that the least amount of energy could be materialized in two particles totally opposite to each other, meaning that they are exactly the same as each other but with reversed qualities. These anti-particles destroy each other if they meet. What is strange about this is the discovery of matter and antimatter’s different levels in the universe; from matter's initial beginnings to matter itself:
Quarks                 and    Anti-quarks
Neutrinos             and    Antineutrinos
Electrons (Negatrons)   and    Positrons
Protons                and    Antiprotons
Neutrons              and    Antineutrons
Matter                 and    Antimatter

Astronomers and astrophysicists believe that the universe began with the concentration of matter and antimatter, or from nonexistence. The question that poses itself here is: Who separated those antimatters to create the universe? No sane person would think about this without considering the Almighty Creator. Even after separating antimatters to create the universe, scientists see that it is inevitable for some antimatter to destroy its opposite. The question here is: Right now, what separates the matter from its antimatter in space to allow the universe to exist? Who put it there and continues to protect it? The unquestionable answer is: He who made this system is the Almighty Creator, Who says to something, “Be.” and it comes into existence. However, the stages of creation of the universe since the Big Bang were thoroughly planned concerning adjustment of temperature, the rate of matter's initial particle creation, the speed of the universe's expansion, etc. until the universe reached its current state. This could never have happened without the creation and the organization of Allah the Omniscient.

The elements of the Big Bang within the stars are a proof of organization and creation.

In a study about the chemical composition of the observed universe, it was found that the majority of it is composed of hydrogen forming 74% of the known universe's matter. Hydrogen is the lightest element and has the simplest structure. 
Helium comes second after hydrogen in its percentage in the observed universe's matter and forms 24% of it (also, it is the second element in the Periodic Table). This observation led to the correct deduction that all known elements (which are more than 105 elements) have been created from hydrogen.
Studying the closest star to us—the sun—it has been found that its fuel is hydrogen gas where 4 nuclei fuse to form a Helium nuclei plus energy. This operation is called Nuclear Fusion. Thus, stars are nothing but nuclear furnaces where elements are formed from hydrogen nuclei; even iron which is formed by nuclear fusion in the last stages of the major stars' life at the moment of their explosion. Such stars are known as the supernovae. When supernovae explode they scatter their constituents, including iron, into space. Those elements enter into the gravitational force of other bodies which lack iron or bond with a few smaller elements of matter and form heavier elements. This process alone is enough to confirm the truth of creation. 

The structure of the living cell proves the creation and organization 

§         There are more than 1.5 million kinds of living creatures currently existing, more than a quarter million kinds of creatures have become extinct leaving behind their fossils in the earth's rocks, and five million are believed to be living on earth yet undiscovered. 
§         The half-life of each type of life varies from 100,000 thousand to 5 million years and may even reach up to 10 million years when that type of organism is represented by billions of members. 
§         The human body, for instance, is formed of millions and millions of different kinds of cells.
§         The one living cell has a very complicated structure; in spite of its minuteness, exceeding all technical achievements man has ever reached or even thought of. 
The cell is formed of a living membrane (in both man and animal) that contains the cytoplasm and a nucleus. Cytoplasm is a complex non-homogeneous fluid that is mainly composed of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and other substances. It contains some specialized organelles called mitochondria. Functioning as an intermediary, messages, compounds, and substances move from the nucleus to any mitochondria and from mitochondria to another, or outside the cell. 
Two membranes separate the cytoplasm from the nucleus which stores the majority of the genetic code substance of the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum joins the nuclear and the outer membranes together. It is a complex reticulum which carries small beads called ribosomes that produce more than two thousand kinds of proteins that the cell needs according to the orders it receives from the nucleus. Some kinds of mitochondria carry the enzymes. Enzymes are protein substances produced by ribosomes and aid in digesting nutritious substances inside the cell, while others change organic substances into energy needed by the cell in a few specific activities.
The plant cell differs in that its membrane is composed of dead cells; it contains plastids (chlorophyll) that are substances necessary in the completion of the photosynthesis process. The genetic code is carried to small bodies inside the nucleus known as chromosomes that have a definite number for each type of organism. The chromosome carries the genes that, in turn, carry the qualities of the creature, give orders to the cell to divide, and distinguish and produce more kinds of proteins. Thus, the nucleus is the cell's information center.
The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope and contains a granular substance called nucleoplasm that contains both the chromosomes and the nucleoli. Allah the Almighty has given each cell the power to produce more than two hundred thousand kinds of proteins. Protein is formed from chains of amino acid molecules. There are twenty kinds of amino acids capable of manufacturing protein; these acids are solid, non-living, crystallized substances which are usually soluble in water.
Amino acids are composed of six main elements that are; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Choosing these six elements out of the 105 known elements by accident is statistically impossible. The amino acids that produce proteins must be of a certain kind (Alpha); their atoms must be arranged around the carbon atom and inside the protein in a counter-clockwise arrangement, and should be tied with a special bond known as the peptide bond. Such bonds render the formation of one molecule of protein by chance impossible.   

The simplest protein molecule is formed of fifty units of the twenty known amino acid molecules under the special peptide bonds; and some of them are formed of thousands of amino acid molecules that are in a specific arrangement. Such facts prove, without a doubt, that the formation of one protein by chance is statistically impossible. Thus, the holy ayah was revealed with the divine truth more than*1400 years ago to relieve the worried souls and minds from the many theories given as substitutes to Allah’s creation. These other theories proved to be false in the end.   
Glory be to Allah who told us that what can be translated as, *" Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakil (trustee, Disposer of all affairs, Guardian) over all things "*.  Such is the scientific foundation for all human knowledge. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Mohammad to whom Allah revealed the Qur'an, who delivered the message, accomplished his mission, advised the people, and struggled for the sake of Allah until the day he died.  May Allah reward him for all the good he did for us. Praise be to Allah in the beginning and the end

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