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الاثنين، 6 مايو، 2013

Elements, Minerals, Precious and Semi-Precious Stones, Rocks and Other Materials Mentioned In The Glorious Qur'an

الاثنين, مايو 06, 2013

Elements, Minerals, Precious and Semi-Precious Stones, Rocks and Other Materials Mentioned  In The Glorious Qur'an
                                   By: Dr. / Zaghloul El-Naggar

* Copper in the Glorious Qur'an

   Copper is explicitly mentioned once in the Glorious Qur'an, and implicitly twice. One of these implicit notions is mentioned under (iron) above
"Give me pieces (blocks) of iron;" then, when he had filled up the gap between the two mountain-cliffs, he said: "Blow;" then when he had made them (red as) fire, he said: "Bring me molten copper to pour over them."
 (Surat Al-Kahf (The Cave):96)
And need not be repeated here. The second notion
"And to Solomon (We subjected) the wind, its morning (stride from sunrise till midnoon) was a month's (journey); and its afternoon (stride from the midday decline of the sun to sunset) was a month's (journey i.e. in one day he could travel two months' journey). And We caused a fount of (molten) brass to flow for him, and there were jinn that worked in front of him, by the Leave of his Lord. And whosoever of them turned aside from Our Command, We shall cause him to taste of the torment of the blazing Fire."
 (Surat Saba' (Sheba):12)
Is mentioned as a miracle to Prophet (Soloman), and miracles cannot be scientifically analyzed, and hence, will not be discussed here.

The implicit notion to copper in the Glorious Qur'an reads:

"There will be sent against you both, smokeless flames of fire and (molten) brass, and you will not be able to defend yourselves."
(Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):35)
As mentioned above (under iron in the Glorious Qur'an):

   When the core of the (Red Super giant) becomes eventually changed into iron, the nuclear fusion will cease to function since the nuclear structure of iron does not allow its fusion to heavier elements as this fusion requires the input of excessive quantities of energy. Consequently, the (Red Supergiant) explodes in the form of a(Supernova), the iron core is chattered to pieces that fly out into space, where the nuclei of isotopes with masses heavier than iron are created by the neutron bombardment.

   As the atomic number of copper is (29) and its atomic weight is (63.546) compared to (26) and (55.58) for iron, respectively, copper is created in outer space by the bombardment of iron nuclei with neutrons. Spaceships are constantly bombarded by these copper nuclei on their way to outer space, and in returning to Earth, the attached copper nuclei react with both humidity and carbon dioxide, in the lower atmosphere to change into copper carbonate.

   This fact was only discovered with space travel in the middle of the 20th century, and its notion in the Glorious Qur'an can remain as a living testimony for both its divine origin, and the Prophethood of the Noble Messenger who received it.

* Gold and Silver in the Glorious Qur'an

  Gold is explicitly mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an (8) times, three of which concerns this world
"Beautified for men is the love of things they covet; women, children, much of gold and silver (wealth), branded beautiful horses, cattle and well-tilled land. This is the pleasure of the present world's life; but Allah has the excellent return (Paradise with flowing rivers, etc.) with Him."
 (Surat Al-Imran (The Family of Imran):14)
"O you who believe! Verily, there are many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks who devour the wealth of mankind in falsehood, and hinder (them) from the Way of Allah (i.e. Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism). And those who hoard up gold and silver (Al-Kanz: the money, the Zakat of which has not been paid), and spend them not in the Way of Allah, announce unto them a painful torment."
(Surat At-Taubah (The Repentance):34)  
And
"Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him?"
(Surat Az-Zukhruf (The Gold Adornments):53)
 And the other five concern the world-to-come
"Verily, those who disbelieved, and died while they were disbelievers, the (whole) earth full of gold will not be accepted from anyone of them even if they offered it as a ransom. For them is a painful torment and they will have no helpers."
 (Surat Al-Imran (The Family of Imran):91)
"These! For them will be 'Adn (Eden) Paradise (everlasting Gardens); wherein rivers flow underneath them; therein they will be adorned with bracelets of gold, and they will wear green garments of fine and thick silk. They will recline therein on raised thrones. How good is the reward, and what an excellent Murtafaqa (dwelling, resting place.)!"
(Surat Al-Kahf (The Cave):31)
"Every time they seek to get away therefrom, from anguish, they will be driven back therein, and (it will be) said to them: "Taste the torment of burning!"
 (Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage):23)
'Adn (Eden) Paradise (everlasting Gardens) will they enter, therein will they be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their garments therein will be of silk."

(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):33)
And
"Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them; (there will be) therein all that the ones inner-selves could desire, all that the eyes could delight in and you will abide therein forever."
 (Surat Az-Zukhruf (The Gold Adornments):71)
   Similarly, silver is mentioned in this Glorious Book (6) times, divided equally between this life
"Beautified for men is the love of things they covet; women, children, much of gold and silver (wealth), branded beautiful horses, cattle and well-tilled land. This is the pleasure of the present world's life; but Allah has the excellent return (Paradise with flowing rivers, etc.) with Him."
 (Surat Al-Imran (The Family of Imran):14)
"O you who believe! Verily, there are many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks who devour the wealth of mankind in falsehood, and hinder (them) from the Way of Allah (i.e. Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism). And those who hoard up gold and silver (Al-Kanz: the money, the Zakat of which has not been paid), and spend them not in the Way of Allah, announce unto them a painful torment."
(Surat At-Taubah (The Repentance):34) 
 And
"And were it not that all mankind would have become of one community (all disbelievers, desiring worldly life only), We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious (Allah), silver roofs for their houses, and elevators whereby they ascend,"
(Surat Az-Zukhruf (The Gold Adornments):33)
And the life after death
"And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and cups of crystal,"
 (Surat Al-Insan (Man):15)
"Crystal-clear, made of silver. They will determine the measure thereof according to their wishes."
 (Surat Al-Insan (Man):16)
"Their garments will be of fine green silk, and gold embroidery. They will be adorned with bracelets of silver, and their Lord will give them a pure drink."
(Surat Al-Insan (Man):21)

  Hence, individually worldly gold is mentioned twice, and worldly silver is mentioned once, and the two precious metals are mentioned together twice. In all such verses, these two valuable metals are described as worldly commodities that are loved coveted and cherished.

  Consequently, the divine warning against hoarding both gold and silver, and not spending them in the way of Allah, is repeatedly mentioned, and history has substained the Qur'anic precedence with this psychological human behavior.
     
*Ruby, Coral and Pearl in the Glorious Qur'an
  In the Glorious Qur'an (ruby) is mentioned once

"(In beauty) they are like rubies and coral."
(Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):58)

  In the context of the rewards of paradise, (coral) is mentioned twice

"Out of them both come out pearl and coral."
 (Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):22)

  Once concerning this world and the other concerning the world-to-come and (pearl) is reported (6) times, (5) of which relate to the life hereafter

"Every time they seek to get away therefrom, from anguish, they will be driven back therein, and (it will be) said to them: "Taste the torment of burning!"

(Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage):23)

"'Adn (Eden) Paradise (everlasting Gardens) will they enter, therein will they be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their garments therein will be of silk."

(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):33)

"And there will go round boy-servants of theirs, to serve them as if they were preserved pearls."
(Surat At-Tur (The Mount):24)

"Like unto preserved pearls."
 (Surat Al-Waqi'ah (The Event):23)

 And

"And round about them will (serve) boys of everlasting youth. If you see them, you would think them scattered pearls."
(Surat Al-Insan (Man):19)

And only one relates to this life

"Out of them both come out pearl and coral."
 (Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):22)
This last notion reads:

"He has let loosed the two seas (the salt and fresh water) meeting together. 20. Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress.21. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinn and men) deny? 22. Out of them both come out pearl and coral.23. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinn and men) deny?"

(Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):19-23)

  These verses confirm recent observations in open seas and oceans that marine water is classified both horizontally and vertically into bodies with different psycho-chemical characteristics, and hence life forms and sediments.

  This is simply because both corals and pearl oysters are marine water dwellers, although some pearl oysters can live in fresh water. This is simply because corals are exclusively warm, shallow-water, marine inhabitants.

  The Qur'anic precedence with this scientific fact that was only discovered in the last few decades of the 20th century can testify to the divine purity of the Glorious Qur'an and the correct prophethood of the noble messenger who received it.

*Sediments, Stones and Rocks in the Glorious Qur'an:

(a)          Dust (Earth or Soil):

 The word (ÊÑÇÈ) meaning dust, earth or soil is mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an (17) times; (6) of these describe the creation of the human body from dust, (9) describe its decaying to dust after death, and (2)  describe the soil section. One of these two last verses reads:
"…..His likeness is the likeness of a smooth rock on which is a little dust; on it falls heavy rain which leaves it bare. They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people."

(Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow):264)

(b)         Clay:

   The word (ÕáÕÇá=clay= argillaceous Earth) is mentioned in the Noble Qur'an (4) times, indicating the creation of the human body from clay. In another form, the word (ÓÌíá=baked clay) came (3) times in the form of divine punishment.

(c)          Mud:

  The word (Øíä=Mud) is mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an (12) times, (7) of which refer to the creation of the human body from mud, (2) describe the miracle performed by Jesus Christ when he was instructed by Allah to create birds out of mud and blow into the mud it will come  alive by the will of the Creator. A third time describes the divine punishment of the astray people of Prophet Lot who were punished by a shower of clay stone. The fourth, describes the Egyptian Pharoe's instruction to Human to form bricks, by burning clay.

(d)         Glass:

   The word (ÒÌÇÌÉ = a glassy vessel) is explicitly mentioned twice in the Glorious Qur'an, and implicitly once as (ããÑÏ ãä ÞæÇÑíÑ = paved) with slabs of glass (glazed).

(e)          Rocks and Stones:

   The word (ÕÎÑ Ãæ ÕÎÑÉ =Rock) came (3) times in the Glorious Qur'an, the first is describing the excavated rocks of the people of Thamud, the second is the rock of (Muses) and his attendant, and the third came in a parable given by (Luqman) to  his son about the hardness and durability of rocks.

   However, the words (ÍÌÑ Ãæ ÍÌÇÑÉ =stone or stones) came in the illustrious Qur'an in both the singular and the plural forms (12) times. Two of these describe the stone struck by Moses' staff, and then water gushed fourth there form in the form of (12) springs. Five verses describe heavenly stones sent down as divine punishment, two describe stones in hell, (2) come as parable of hardness

"Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do."

(Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow):74)

"Say (O Muhammad SAW) "Be you stones or iron,"
(Surat Al-Isra (The Journey by Night):50)

And (1) describes how rivers gush forth there form exploding stones, or crack and split as under sending forth (ground) water, or collapse from fear of Allah.

  Rocks and stones are also mentioned as tracts (dykes and sills) of white and red, of various shades of color, and black intense in hue
"See you not that Allah sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of varying colours, and among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colours and (others) very black."
(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):27)


   These are the basics for the classification of all primary (igneous) rocks into acidic   and highly acidic rocks (with white and red colours), intermediate rocks (with various shades of color) and basic to ultrabasic rocks (with black colours intense in hue).

  These facts are new to the acquired human knowledge as they have only started to unfold before the human intellect since the mid-nineteenth century. The foretelling of the Glorious Qur'an (which was revealed more than 14 centuries ago as the last form of divine guidance to man) with explicit pointers to these facts is only one of numerous testimonies for the divine purity of this eternal book and for the authentic Prophethood of the Noble Messenger who received it through divine revelation.

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